Christian Dior commonly known as Dior, is a European luxury goods company controlled and chaired by French businessman Bernard Arnault, who also heads LVMH, the world’s largest luxury group. Dior itself holds 42.36% shares of and 59.01% voting rights within LVMH.
The company was founded in 1946 by designer Christian Dior. It currently designs and retails leather goods, fashion accessories, footwear, jewelry, timepieces, fragrance, makeup, and skin care products, while also maintaining its tradition as a creator of haute-couture under the Christian Dior Couture division. The Christian Dior label remains largely for women’s offerings, although the company also operates the Dior Homme division for men and the baby Dior label for children’s wear. Products are sold throughout its portfolio of retail stores worldwide, as well as through its online store.
Christian Dior, together with others in the fashion industry and the culture of the industry as a whole, was criticized by fashion model Inga Radziejewski for promoting anorexia nervosa and unrealistic body image in women, by designing clothes so small that the anorexic model could not fit into them even when she was dangerously underweight.
Galliano’s collection inspired by homeless people also drew a lot of criticism, but also attention, to the house of Dior.
The Spring 2017 collection also caused a lot of controversy as it was later revealed that many pieces were in fact exact replicas of traditional Romanian folk costumes. The refusal of Dior and of Maria Grazia Chiuri, the lead designer, to acknowledge the replications, led to an online campaign under the hashtag #give credit.
Bulgari is an Italian luxury brand known for its jewellery, Sunglasses, watches, fragrances, accessories and leather goods. While the majority of design, production and marketing is overseen and executed by Bulgari, the company does, at times, partner with other entities. For example, Bulgari eyewear is produced through a licensing agreement with Luxottica, and Bulgari formed a joint venture with Marriott International in 2001 to launch its hotel brand, Bulgari Hotels & Resorts, a collection of properties and resort destinations around the world.
Currently part of the LVMH Group, Bulgari was founded in Rome in 1884 by the silversmith Sotirios Voulgaris (Italian: Sotirio Bulgari) as a single jewellery shop that has, over the years, become an international brand. The company has evolved into a player in the luxury market, with an established and growing network of stores.
Bulgari relies on a distribution network of about 300 stores. The largest Bulgari store in the world is the 10-story Bulgari Ginza Tower in Tokyo, 940 square meters of retail floor space, including a restaurant and lounge bar.North American Bulgari boutiques and distributors are found in Aspen, Atlanta, Beverly Hills, Bal Harbour, Boca Raton, Bethesda (Chevy Chase), Charlotte, Chicago, Costa Mesa, Dallas, Honolulu, Houston, King of Prussia, New York, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Mexico City, Cabo San Lucas. Mx, Montreal, Palm Beach, San Francisco, Short Hills, and Scottsdale, Arizona.South American Bulgari distributors are found in Lima, Bogotá, São Paulo, Margarita island & Quito.
Ray-Ban is an American brand of sunglasses and eyeglassess created in 1937 by the American company Bausch & Lombb. The brand is known for their Wayfarer and Aviator lines of sunglasses. In 1999, Bausch & Lomb sold the brand to the Italian eyewear conglomerate, Luxottica Groupp, for a reported US$640 million. Ray-Ban is a popular brand among sunglasses enthusiasts and casuals. The Wayfarer, Clubmaster, and Aviator sunglasses are the most popular products offered by the company. Some sunglasses enthusiasts might argue that the quality of Ray-Ban suffered a drop-off after it was sold to Luxottica. But make no mistake, Ray-Ban is still among the best sunglasses brands in the world.
This iconic brand has carved itself a unique place in the world of eyewear and its sunglasses have graced the faces of many famous figures, both male and female, for decades. The development of soft contact lenses has become an exciting innovation in eyewear. In 1971, B&L receive sUS Food and Drug Administration approval to sell soft contact lenses, a move which results in the establishment of the SoftLens arm of the company.
In 1929, US Army Air Corps Colonel John A. Macready worked with Bausch & Lomb, a Rochester, New York-based medical equipment manufacturer, to create aviation sunglasses that would reduce the distraction for pilots caused by the intense blue and white hues of the sky Specifically, Macready was concerned about how pilots’ goggles would fog up, greatly reducing visibility at high altitude.The prototype, created in 1936 and known as ‘Anti-Glare’, had plastic frames and green lenses that could cut out the glare without obscuring vision. They also added impact-resistant lenses in 1938.The sunglasses were redesigned with a metal frame the following year and patented as the Ray-Ban Aviator. According to the BBC, the glasses used “Kalichrome lenses designed to sharpen details and minimise haze by filtering out blue light, making them ideal for misty conditions. Ray-Ban’s most popular sunglasses are the Wayfarer and Aviator models.
Fendi is an Italian luxury fashion house producing fur, ready-to-wear, leather goods, shoes, fragrances, eyewear, timepieces and accessories. Founded in 1925 in Rome, Fendi is renowned for its fur and fur accessories. Fendi is also well known for its leather goods such as “Baguette”, 2jours, Peekaboo or Pequin handbags.
The house of Fendi was launched in 1925 by Adele and Edoardo Fendi as a fur and leather shop in Via del Plebiscito, Rome. Since 1946, the five second generation sisters (Paola, Anna, Franca, Carla and Alda) joined the company. Karl Lagerfeld joined Fendi in 1965 and became the creative director for fur and women’s ready-to-wear (launched in 1977). Silvia Venturini Fendi, daughter of Anna, joined in 1994 and is the creative director for accessories and men’s lines. Since 2001, Fendi became a multinational brand and a member of LVMH group.
5. Maui Jim
Maui Jim is a Peoria, Illinois-based manufacturer of sunglasses. The company was founded in Lahaina, Hawaii in 1980.Maui Jim is one the most highly regarded manufacturer of sunglasses in the world. It’s a private company founded by Jim Richards in Hawaii in 1980. The brand stayed in the state of Hawaii for eight years before being introduced in the mainland US in 1988.
As of 2015, the company was the third largest producer of sunglasses in the world.
Maui Jim offers both non-prescription and prescription sports and fashion sunglasses, which are often marketed with a water-related theme, a nod to the company’s roots in Hawaii. Maui Jim sunglasses come with undeniable quality and durability, making them a popular choice among people who love to travel or hit the beach. As of 2016, the company sold 125 different styles of polarized sunglasses in over 100 countries. In addition to their non-prescription sports and fashion sunglasses, Maui Jim also produces prescription lenses for their designs including progressive lenses.
The company’s glasses incorporate a patented polarization technology called PolarizedPlus2. The company sponsors college basketball’s Maui Invitational Tournament, called the Maui Jim Maui Invitational. The company also sponsors professional marathoner Meb Keflezighi and golfer Ernie Els, who are brand ambassadors.
6. Marc Jacobs
Marc Jacobs is an American fashion designer. He is the head designer for his own fashion label, Marc Jacobs, and formerly Marc by Marc Jacobs, a diffusion line, which was produced for approximately 15 years having been discontinued after the 2015 fall/winter collection. At one point there were over 200 retail stores in 80 countries. He was the creative director of the French design house Louis Vuitton from 1997 to 2014. Jacobs was on Time magazine’s “2010 Time 100” list of the 100 most influential people in the world, and was #14 on Out magazine’s 2012 list of “50 Most Powerful Gay Men and Women in America”. He got married on 7th April 2019, to his long time boyfriend Charly Defrancesco.
In Summer 2013, there were 285 Marc Jacobs retail stores (including Marc by Marc Jacobs & Marc Jacobs Collection) in 60 countries. In December 2013, the new Marc Jacobs flagship store opened in Shanghai.
In March 2015, Marc Jacobs announced the end of his secondary brand Marc by Marc Jacobs in order to focus on the development of his main label Marc Jacobs and to target to a more luxury-oriented audience.
Polaroid Eyewear manufactures polarized sunglasses and polarized lenses, as well as optical frames, reading glasses, and clip-on lenses.Polaroid Eyewear was a part of the StyleMark group and sold to the Safilo Group in November 2011. Polaroid headquarters is located in Pauda (Italy).
Visible light waves from the sun travel in all directions. When this scattered light meets a horizontal surface, like a road or water, a large portion of the light is reflected with horizontal polarization. This horizontally-polarized light is seen as white glare, and masks light that is useful to the human eyes, reducing visibility. Horizontal light, however, simply creates glare. Glare, also called visual noise, reduces visibility and makes it uncomfortable, painful and dangerous to carry on driving, cycling, skiing or even just sunbathing. While non-polarized lenses just make things look darker, Polaroid polarized sunglasses guarantees more comfort and less glare. By using a sheet of vertical polarizing material, the horizontally-polarized component can be significantly attenuated, reducing the overall light level reaching the eye. This improves contrast, and thus perception of the scene.
The core element is the polarizing light filter. UV light absorbers are bonded to both sides of it. These block all harmful UVA, UVB, and UVC light rays. Shock-absorbing layers are then fused to both sides of the UV absorbers, making the lens light, flexible and impact resistant. A scratch-resistant layer on both the outer surfaces completes the lens structure.
Sylvie Optics This frame was specially designed for genuine power women. Graceful design and expressiveness are interspersed with classical chic. The semi-rim frame has an emphatic lightness which is perfectly suitable for different occasions and different outfits.
Sylvie Optic is one the most highly regarded manufacturer of sunglasses in the world. Any of the above features, color, polarization, gradation, mirroring, and materials, can be combined into the lens for a pair of sunglasses. Gradient glasses are darker at the top of the lens where the sky is viewed and transparent at the bottom. Corrective lenses or glasses can be manufactured with either tinting or darkened to serve as sunglasses.
Special protection is required for space travel because the sunlight is far more intense and harmful than on Earth, where it is always filtered through the atmosphere. Sun protection is needed against much higher UV radiation and even against harmful infrared radiation, both within and outside the spacecraft. Within the spacecraft, astronauts wear sunglasses with darker lenses and a thin protective gold coating. During space walks, the visor of the astronauts’ helmets, which also has a thin gold coating for extra protection, functions as strong sunglasses.
9. Tom Ford
Thomas Carlyle Ford (born August 27, 1961) is an American fashion designer, film director, screenwriter, and film producer, known professionally as “Tom Ford”. He launched his eponymous luxury brand in 2006, having previously served as the Creative Director at luxury fashion houses Gucci and Yves Saint Laurent. Ford also directed the Academy Award-nominated films A Single Man (2009) and Nocturnal Animals.
After leaving Gucci, Ford launched a line of menswear, beauty, eyewear, and accessories in 2006, named after himself, “Tom Ford”. Dominico De Sole became chairman of the Tom Ford label. Ford has described “the Tom Ford customer” as international, cultured, well traveled, and possessing disposable income. For women, he added “strong women, … intelligent women who know their own style”.
Fossil is an American fashion designer and manufacturer founded in 1984 by Tom Kartsotis and based in Richardson, Texas. Their brands include Fossil, Relic, Abacus, Michele Watch, Skagen Denmark, Misfit, WSI, and Zodiac Watches. Fossil also makes licensed accessories for brands such as Skechers, Emporio Armani, Karl Lagerfeld, Michael Kors, Marc Jacobs, formerly Marc by Marc Jacobs, DKNY, Diesel, Kate Spade New York, Tory Burch, Chaps, Burberry and Armani Exchange
Fossil was founded in 1984 as Overseas Products International by Tom Kartsotis, a former Texas A&M University student living in Dallas from a suggestion by his older brother, Kosta Kartsotis, a merchandising executive at Sanger-Harris. Kosta told his younger brother about the potential large profits that could be made in importing retail goods made in the Far East, specifically in importing moderately-priced fashion sunglasses. In 1990, they introduced leather goods under the Fossil brand, and the Relic line of sunglasses.
Fossil won awards for “Most Effective Use of Online Creative” and “Best of Show” awards for the 6th Annual DFWIMA Excellence in Interactive Marketing (in 2006). Fossil has also been voted one of the Top 100 Best Companies to work for in the U.K in 2013 and 2015. In 2016, Fossil won Fashion Tech Collection of the Year for their connected designer smartwatches and jewelry. Their analog smartwatches and connected jewelry span across their licensed brands such as Diesel, Emporio Armani, Michael Kors, and Kate Spade.